Writing any assignment - whether it’s a short essay or a scientific dissertation, knowing how to use the correct formatting is key. It helps determine whether your assignment will be taken seriously in an academic light or regarded as amateur and deserving of a low grade. There are a number of different referencing styles available in which to format your text, the most common being APA, MLA, Harvard, OSCOLA referencing uwa, and Chicago. They can be done using an online generator of manually. If you have an assignment to be done in the Chicago referencing style and are unsure as to how to proceed, read our guidelines to find out.
What are the Main Differences between Notes and Bibliography/Author-Date Source Citations?
There are two styles of Chicago referencing curtin one can utilize: one is notes and book or website links, and the other is the author-date style. Read on to figure out which framework is best for your particular document.
The notes and bibliography framework is most commonly used in humanities fields within academia, particularly for subjects like writing, history or other personal narrative. It requires sources to be listed alphabetically (without abbreviations(, and references to be numbered. In some cases, endnotes are required. In all cases, notes are connected to a numeral superscript within the text so that the reader can easily trace its origin.
Sources are typically organized in a variety of lists. Within a notes and bibliography framework there can exist a vast array of sources including unconventional ones that do not fit in with other parts of the written text.
The author/date variation on Chicago formatting is most commonly present in scientific fields as well as sociology. Sources are easy to find thanks to direct links in the content. Typically, brackets are not in use and are organized by the writer’s surname and year of publication.
These two ways of formatting are quite similar apart from the use of numerical organization instead of references within the text. Below you will find adequate examples to help understand the meaning of how to cite sources in the two Chicago systems described above.
There’s no universal, perfect answer for which format you should utilize, but a common tendency among scholars is to utilize the option most preferred by their colleagues, advisers and instructors. Read on to learn more about what each option entails and whether it’s best for you.
Once you have finished your research paper and decide you need to cite other papers within, you have to collect basic information about the particular source: the title in full, the author, where it’s from (i.e. a journal or anthology it’s part of), the year of publication and how it was used.
Chicago Writing References
Include links to any word or phrase in the text within the bibliography. Use a superscript number within the text as needed to indicate the author’s opinion on a particular matter. Use the number again at the start of the reference at full-size before writing the note out in full. References to repeated sources involve using the word in the same place followed by the page number. When referencing in Chicago style similar sources not in successive order, abbreviate them.
If a source has three or more creators, write down the first author’s name in full and the others as “et. al” in this placement.
When writing footnotes, make sure to include the writer’s name in full and without modifications. Journal titles and book chapter titles need to be distinguished by double quotation marks, and the first line of each reference should be indented two spaces from the page edge.
Separate sources need to be distinguished by incorporating unique data into the reference to indicate a source’s significance.
What’s New in the 17th Edition Chicago Manual of Style?
The Chicago Manual of Style is recognized as the premier source for learning about style, use and structure of the Chicago referencing format, and is a must-have for wordsmiths of all stripes. Several things are new about the 17th edition that you should be aware of:
The new and extended style rules have made adjustments to keep up with growing innovation and social change. New content echoes the most recent updates in distribution and publication practices and electronic processes. It also features updated and extended Chicago reference recommendations, modernized reference recommendations, a revised and expanded glossary of words and expressions to avoid, and a way to define new and improved reference indices.
How to Create Footnotes and Endnotes in Chicago Style
Remember that quality is of utmost importance in academic assignments help. A major component of a high-quality academic research assignment is giving proper credit to the those whose information you used to reach your own conclusions. Failing to give credit to another writer when taking information directly from their work constitutes falsification and plagiarism.
The protocol at universities in Sydney and throughout Australia, if you’re caught stealing someone’s intellectual property, at the minimum your paper will receive a failing grade, and you will likely face disciplinary actions from your institution of higher learning and possibly even expulsion. The good news is that properly citing your sources is not a difficult task. Below are some examples of how to cite different kinds of sources in the Chicago format, courtesy of UNSW:
Citations for Books with One Author; Two or more Authors
- A book with only one author is cited as such:
Ariely, Dan, Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions (Toronto: HarperCollins Canada, 2007), 66.
- A book with two or three authors follows a similar citation format:
Sheryl Sandberg and Adam Grant, Option B: Facing Adversity, Building Resilience and Finding Joy ( : WH Allen, 2017) 46-48.
- Much like an appendix, book with four or more authors is also similar to the above, but has some unique components:
Ambrose Bierce et al., The Complete Short Stories (Omaha: University of Nebraska Press, 1970), 90.
- A chapter or other part of a book or textbook is cited in another way:
Harry Bigdon Meech, "The Domestic Violence in the Poor Lives of African Women in Canada," in Big Worlds: Studies of Engaging Africa, ed. Mary Panutek and Farel Mint (Moscow, Russia: Chanakya, 1984), 212.
Citations for Print Journal Articles
Citations for journal articles may include a specific page number to clarify from what context of an article some phrase is taken. Inclusive page numbers for the entire cited article are often not mentioned in the bibliography page, however, the pages of the article are often separated by many paragraphs of unrelated material. If page numbers are included, they should follow the date and be preceded by a colon.
Here we have an example:
Moyer, Melinda Wenner. “Harder Evidence Builds that Viruses Play a Role in Alzheimer’s.” Scientific American, (2018): 19. Accessed June 22, 2018. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/harder-evidence-builds-that-viruses-play-a-role-in-alzheimers/
Coker, Margaret. “Free to Drive, Saudi Women Still Must Take a Back Seat to Men.” The New York Times, June 22, 2018
Brown, Brene. “The Power of Vulnerability.” TED Talk, TEDx Houston, Houston, TX, June 2010.
Unpublished: Samuels, Aaron. 2005. “The Value of High School Socialization: Who are the Mean Girls?” PhD diss. Northwestern University
Published: Jetson, George, G. 1964. “The Future of Interstellar Housing Development: the Next Frontier.” Orbit City: Interstellar University Press.
Frej, Willa. “Hungary Approves Legislation Criminalizing Help to Migrants, Refugees.” The Huffington Post. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/hungary-approves-legislation-criminalizing-help-to-migrants-refugees_us_5b2b8d1ae4b00295f159a23b (accessed June 22, 2018).
Rogers v. Whitaker (1992) 175 CLR 479
Chappel v. Hart  HCA 55. Available from: http://www.austlii.edu.au/
Commonwealth v. Anderson (1960) 105 CLR 303; 34 ALJR 323
How to Cite Chapters or Articles from a Book
If your source is not a whole book but part of it, Chicago references should be done in this way:
Minegro, Karl M. “What Is Special About Animals’ Brain?.” In “What We Know about the World Around,” edited by Harry M. Konello, 33-36. Edition 3. Paris: Philosophique, 2008.
Citations for Online E-books
If you have found a book online and you need to cite it, make sure you know all the information required to compose such a reference:
Roth, Veronica. Allegiant. : HarperCollins, 2013.
As you can see, Chicago referencing style is not among the easiest available. Follow our pieces of advice and format your Chicago style references perfectly and wisely. And keep in mind that you can always ask for essay help online at Edubirdie.