Most people would agree that as a parent the biggest responsibility is to one’s child. Children are dependent and rely on their parents for protection. Being a parent means ceaseless nurturing, fostering, teaching, provision, protecting, and so on. But through the science and art of nursing, a nurse also takes on many, if not all, of those tasks. So when a child gets sick and requires medical care, especially if the medical care is continuous, the parent relinquishes his/her role of the primary caregiver to the medical staff. As an advocate for the patient, especially in pediatrics, the nurse must apprehend not only the physical needs for the patient but also factors that contribute to the child’s the emotional and mental well-being. A based nurse, Anne Casey, proposed a nursing theory to try to fulfill all of the needs of the patient. A nursing theory is used to set guidelines based on observations from the individual proposing the theory. (Petiprin, 2016) Nursing theories lay the groundwork for the most vital roles of the nurse to be able to provide the best patient care possible. Anne Casey’s nursing theory is titled Casey’s Model of Nursing. This is a middle-range theory, meaning it addresses specific concepts and involves a limited number of variables. The concepts centered in Casey’s Model of Nursing are pediatric patients, family involvement, partnership in care, and the nurse. While many nursing theories have been written, the importance of Casey’s is due to the lack of theories pertaining to pediatric care. Casey’s Model of Nursing has provided educational resources for nurses worldwide when it comes to pediatric care.
While working in pediatric oncology as a nurse, Anne Casey developed Casey’s Model of Nursing (Alsop-Shields, 2002). This theory was proposed to test factors that influence familial participation in patient care and also factors that could affect or even deter it. These factors can include whether the child has any siblings the parents must tend to, if the parents have a job and if so if they are allowed time off, how far the hospital is from the family home, and if the parents have a mode of transportation, and many more. Casey presumed the relationship between the nurse and the patient/family should be a partnership. Partnership is “based on a recognition of and respect for a family’s expertise in the care of their child” (Casey, 1995). The theory suggests that the parents of the child pursue a stronger role in the care of their child. With the parents primarily taking care of the child, according to the theory, the nurse will contribute to care by monitoring, assisting, supporting, and teaching the family and the patient. When the parents are not available to care for the child, the nurse will regain the position of primary caretaker (Casey, 1995).
Read also: “We provide nursing assignment help service to students .”
To test for possible influences and factors that made a family more or less involved with the child’s care, Casey collected data from two different hospitals, over a period of three months, and with a total of two hundred forty-three patients being observed (Casey, 1995). The data collected ranged from data collected about the patients, reasons for care, care requirements, staff interviews, and medical/nursing records (Casey, 1995).
Casey’s findings exhibited that a majority of the parents observed were involved with their child’s care. The test concluded that of the eighty-five percent of families involved in their child’s care, twenty percent of those parents also implemented more composite care, such as intravenous therapy (Casey, 1995). Casey surveyed that the majority of parents or family members would conquer obstacles that would have affected their ability to be present. Casey’s experiment gave no conclusive specifics on why some parents were more involved with the care of their child than others, but it was noted that a partnership between the parents and the nurse creates a healthy environment for the patient.
Care of Clients/Nursing Practice Application
Casey’s Model of Nursing, although proposed for pediatrics, is potentially beneficial in many other healthcare settings. Patients tend to be more at ease when someone they trust is involved in their care rather than everyone being uninformed. To maintain a vigorous partnership, the nurse should practice negotiating care with whom he/she is in a partnership with. Roberts and Krause (1990) depict a process for conferring with patients. The process consists of three phases: evoking requests and expectations, interactions and consensus, and decision-making based on mutual understanding of a complication. These tactics help ensure that the patient is receiving the best possible care and that everyone is in agreement upon that and that the nurse is properly advocating for his/her patient in the instance that a loved one disagrees with a plan of care.
Although Casey wasn’t able to determine the exact factors that caused parents or family members of the pediatric patient to be involved in his/her care, the theory holds importance and remains relevant. It provides a guideline for all nurses to follow to ensure that they patients needs are being met entirely, not just physically, and for nurses to set their relationships with patients.
- Alsop-Shields, Linda. (2002). Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, Volume 17, Issue 6, 442 – 449. The Parent-Staff Interaction Model of Pediatric Care. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- Casey, A. (1995). Partnership nursing: influences on involvement of informal carers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22, 1058-1062.
- Petiprin, A. (2016). Nursing Theories and a Philosophy of Nursing. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://nursing-theory.org/articles/nursing-theories-and-a-philosophy-of-nursing.php.
- Roberts, S. & Krause, H. (1990). Negotiation as a Strategy to Empower Self-Care. Holistic Nursing Practice 4 (2), 30-36.